The chemical reaction between atmospheric carbon dioxide and the calcium hydroxide present in Portland cement.

The electrode through which direct current leaves an electrolyte.

catholic area
That part of a metal surface which acts as a cathode.

catholic disbonding
The failure of adhesion between a coating and a metallic surface that is directly attributable to catholic protection conditions and that is often initiated by a defect in the coating system, such as accidental damage, imperfect application or excessive permeability of the coating.

cathodic protection
A means of rendering a metal immune from corrosive attack by causing direct current to flow from its electrolytic environment into the entire metal surface.

A complete electrolytic system comprising of a cathode and an anode in electrical contact with an intervening electrolyte.

A substance (mainly a metal or carbon) in which electric current flows by the movement of electrons.

The chemical or electrochemical reaction of a metal with its environment, resulting in its progressive degradation or destruction.

NOTE. This standard is concerned by electrochemical action.

corrosion product
The chemical compound or compounds produced by the reaction of a corroding metal with its environment.

corrosion interaction
The increase or decrease in the rate of corrosion, or the tendency towards corrosion, of a buried or immersed structure caused by the interception of part of the catholic protection current applied to another buried or immersed structure or current from other sources.

NOTE1. For convenience, also referred to as "interaction".

NOTE2. Also known as "corrosion interference".

crossing point
A point where two buried or immersed structures cross each other when viewed in plan.

current density
The current per unit geometrical area of the protected structure, coated and uncoated, in contact with the electrolyte.

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The Aquamatic®

Impressed Current Cathodic Protection System

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Anfomatic System (MGPS)

Electrolytic Antifouling System